Nanoindentation response of 3D printed PEGDA hydrogels in hydrated environment

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dc.contributor.author Hakim Khalili, Mohammad
dc.contributor.author Williams, Craig J.
dc.contributor.author Micallef, Christian
dc.contributor.author Duarte-Martinez, Fabian
dc.contributor.author Afsar, Ashfaq
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Rujing
dc.contributor.author Wilson, Sandra
dc.contributor.author Dossi, Eleftheria
dc.contributor.author Impey, Susan A.
dc.contributor.author Goel, Saurav
dc.contributor.author Aria, Adrianus Indrat
dc.date.accessioned 2023-02-01T12:13:42Z
dc.date.available 2023-02-01T12:13:42Z
dc.date.issued 2023-01-20
dc.identifier.citation Khalili MH, Williams CJ, Micallef C, et al., (2023) Nanoindentation response of 3D printed PEGDA hydrogels in hydrated environment. ACS Applied Polymer Materials, Volume 5, Issue 2, 10 February 2023, pp. 1180–1190 en_UK
dc.identifier.issn 2637-6105
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.2c01700
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/19076
dc.description.abstract Hydrogels are commonly used materials in tissue engineering and organ-on-chip devices. This study investigated the nanomechanical properties of monolithic and multilayered poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels manufactured using bulk polymerization and layer-by-layer projection lithography processes, respectively. An increase in the number of layers (or reduction in layer thickness) from 1 to 8 and further to 60 results in a reduction in the elastic modulus from 5.53 to 1.69 and further to 0.67 MPa, respectively. It was found that a decrease in the number of layers induces a lower creep index (CIT) in three-dimensional (3D) printed PEGDA hydrogels. This reduction is attributed to mesoscale imperfections that appear as pockets of voids at the interfaces of the multilayered hydrogels attributed to localized regions of unreacted prepolymers, resulting in variations in defect density in the samples examined. An increase in the degree of cross-linking introduced by a higher dosage of ultraviolet (UV) exposure leads to a higher elastic modulus. This implies that the elastic modulus and creep behavior of hydrogels are governed and influenced by the degree of cross-linking and defect density of the layers and interfaces. These findings can guide an optimal manufacturing pathway to obtain the desirable nanomechanical properties in 3D printed PEGDA hydrogels, critical for the performance of living cells and tissues, which can be engineered through control of the fabrication parameters. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.publisher American Chemical Society en_UK
dc.rights Attribution 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ *
dc.subject poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate en_UK
dc.subject nanoindentation en_UK
dc.subject 3D printing en_UK
dc.subject cross-linked hydrogels en_UK
dc.subject creep behavior en_UK
dc.title Nanoindentation response of 3D printed PEGDA hydrogels in hydrated environment en_UK
dc.type Article en_UK


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