Combined sensor of dielectric constant and visible and near infrared spectroscopy to measure soil compaction using artificial neural networks

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dc.contributor.advisor Mouazen, A. M.
dc.contributor.advisor Brewer, Tim R. Al-Asadi, Raed 2015-07-30T15:20:42Z 2015-07-30T15:20:42Z 2014-05
dc.description.abstract Soil compaction is a widely spread problem in agricultural soils that has negative agronomic and environmental impacts. The former may lead to poor crop growth and yield, whereas the latter may lead to poor hydraulic properties of soils, and high risk to flooding, soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, the elimination of soil compaction must be done on regular bases. One of the main parameters to quantify soil compaction is soil bulk density (BD). Mapping of within field variation in soil BD will be a main requirement for within field management of soil compaction. The aim of this research was to develop a new approach for the measurement of soil BD as an indicator of soil compaction. The research relies on the fusion of data from visible and near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIRS), to measure soil gravimetric moisture content (ω), with frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) data to measure soil volumetric moisture content (θv). The values of the estimated ω and θv, for the same undisturbed soil samples were collected from selected locations, textures, soil moisture contents and land use systems to derive soil BD. A total of 1013 samples were collected from 32 sites in the England and Wales. Two calibration techniques for vis-NIRS were evaluated, namely, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). ThetaProbe calibration was performed using the general formula (GF), soil specific calibration (SSC), the output voltage (OV) and artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN analyses for both ω and θv properties were based either on a single input variable or multiple input variables (data fusion). Effects of texture, moisture content, and land use on the prediction accuracy on ω, θv and BD were evaluated to arrive at the best experimental conditions for the measurement of BD with the proposed new system. A prototype was developed and tested under laboratory conditions and implemented in-situ for mapping of ω, θv and BD. When using the entire dataset (general data set), results proved that high measurement accuracy can be obtained for ω and θv with PLSR and the best performing traditional calibration method of the ThetaProbe with R2 values of 0.91 and 0.97, and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEp) of 0.027 g g-1 and 0.019 cm3 cm-3, respectively. However, the ANN – data fusion method resulted in improved accuracy (R2 = 0.98 and RMSEp = 0.014 g g-1 and 0.015 cm3 cm-3, respectively). This data fusion approach gave the best accuracy for BD assessment when only vis-NIRS spectra and ThetaProbe V were used as an input data (R2 = 0.81 and RMSEp = 0.095 g cm-3). The moisture level (L) impact on BD prediction revealed that the accuracy improved with soil moisture increasing, with RMSEp values of 0.081, 0.068 and 0.061 g cm-3, for average ω of 0.11, 0.20 and 0.28 g g-1, respectively. The influence of soil texture was discussed in relation with the clay content in %. It was found that clay positively affected vis-NIRS accuracy for ω measurement and no obvious impact on the dielectric sensor readings was observed, hence, no clear influence of the soil textures on the accuracy of BD prediction. But, RMSEp values of BD assessment ranged from 0.046 to 0.115 g cm-3. The land use effect of BD prediction showed measurement of grassland soils are more accurate compared to arable land soils, with RMSEp values of 0.083 and 0.097 g cm-3, respectively. The prototype measuring system showed moderate accuracy during the laboratory test and encouraging precision of measuring soil BD in the field test, with RMSEp of 0.077 and 0.104 g cm-3 of measurement for arable land and grassland soils, respectively. Further development of the prototype measuring system expected to improve prediction accuracy of soil BD. It can be concluded that BD can be measured accurately by combining the vis-NIRS and FDR techniques based on an ANN-data fusion approach. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.publisher Cranfield University en_UK
dc.rights © Cranfield University 2014. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright owner. en_UK
dc.subject Bulk density en_UK
dc.subject vis-NIR Spectroscopy en_UK
dc.subject FDR en_UK
dc.subject Artificial neural networks en_UK
dc.subject multi-sensor en_UK
dc.title Combined sensor of dielectric constant and visible and near infrared spectroscopy to measure soil compaction using artificial neural networks en_UK
dc.type Thesis or dissertation en_UK
dc.type.qualificationlevel Doctoral en_UK
dc.type.qualificationname PhD en_UK

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