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|Document Type: ||Article|
|Title: ||Extraction of polar and nonpolar biomarkers from the martian soil using aqueous
|Authors: ||Court, Richard W.|
Rix, Catherine S.
Sims, Mark R.
Cullen, David C.
Sephton, Mark A.
|Issue Date: ||2012|
|Citation: ||Richard W. Court, Catherine S. Rix, Mark R. Sims,
David C. Cullen and Mark A. Sephton. Extraction of polar and nonpolar biomarkers from the martian soil using aqueous
surfactant solutions. Planetary and Space Science, Volume 67, Issue 1, July 2012, Pages 109-118|
|Abstract: ||The Life Marker Chip intends to use an aqueous surfactant solution to extract
both polar AND nonpolar biomarkers from the martian soil for transport to an
antibody-based detection system. Currently, a solution of 1.5 g l-1 polysorbate
80 in 20:80 (vol:vol) methanol:water is being considered and appears to be
suitable. However, should this solution be shown to be unsuitable for the LMC or
the martian environment, it will be necessary to use a different surfactant.
Here, we have investigated the ability of a range of other surfactant solutions
to extract a suite of eight standards spiked on the surfaces of the martian soil
simulant JSC Mars-1 and tested the compatibility of the best two surfactants
with a representative antibody assay for the detection of pyrene. The results
show that using 20:80 (vol:vol) methanol:water as the solvent leads to greater
recoveries of standards than using water alone. The poloxamer surfactants
Pluronic® F-68 and F-108 are not effective at extracting the standards from JSC
Mars-1 at any of the concentrations tested here. The fluorosurfactant Zonyl® FS-
300 is able to extract the standards, but not as efficiently as polysorbate 80
solutions. Most successful of the alternative surfactants was the siloxane-based
hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)propyl]methylsiloxane] (PDMSHEPMS) which is able to extract
the standards from JSC Mars-1 about as efficiently as polysorbate 80 solutions.
Enhanced recovery of the standards using polysorbate 80 solutions can be
achieved by increasing the concentration of polysorbate 80, from 1.5 g l-1 to 10
g l-1, leading to an increase in the recovery of standards of about 50%; a
similar increase in effectiveness is also apparent for PDMSHEPMS. Polysorbate 80
at concentrations of 1.5 g l-1 and 10 g l-1 and Zonyl® FS-300 and PDMSHEPMS
(both at a concentration of 10 g l-1) are also compatible with the
representative pyrene antibody ass|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff publications - Cranfield Health|
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