Impact of environmental conditions on the concentrations of trichothecenes, their glucosides, and emerging fusarium toxins in naturally contaminated, irradiated, and fusarium iangsethiae inoculated oats

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dc.contributor.author Oluwakayode, Abimbola
dc.contributor.author Greer, Brett
dc.contributor.author Meneely, Julie
dc.contributor.author Berthiller, Franz
dc.contributor.author Krska, Rudolf
dc.contributor.author Medina, Angel
dc.date.accessioned 2024-03-27T11:35:18Z
dc.date.available 2024-03-27T11:35:18Z
dc.date.issued 2024-03-22
dc.identifier.citation Oluwakayode A, Greer B, Meneely J, et al., (2024) Impact of environmental conditions on the concentrations of trichothecenes, their glucosides, and emerging fusarium toxins in naturally contaminated, irradiated, and fusarium iangsethiae inoculated oats. Toxins, Volume 16, Issue 4, March 2024, Article number 166 en_UK
dc.identifier.issn 2072-6651
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins16040166
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/21098
dc.description.abstract Trichothecenes produced by Fusarium species are commonly detected in oats. However, the ratios of the concentrations of free trichothecenes and their conjugates and how they are impacted by different interacting environmental conditions are not well documented. This study aims to examine the effect of water activity (0.95 and 0.98 aw) and temperature (20 and 25 °C) stress on the production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and their conjugates, as well as diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). Multiple mycotoxins were detected using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry from 64 contaminated oat samples. The highest concentrations of HT-2-glucoside (HT-2-Glc) were observed at 0.98 aw and 20 °C, and were higher than other type A trichothecenes in the natural oats’ treatments. However, no statistical differences were found between the mean concentrations of HT-2-Glc and HT-2 toxins in all storage conditions analysed. DAS concentrations were generally low and highest at 0.95 aw and 20 °C, while deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside levels were highest at 0.98 aw and 20 °C in the naturally contaminated oats. Emerging mycotoxins such as beauvericin, moniliformin, and enniatins mostly increased with a rise in water activity and temperature in the naturally contaminated oats treatment. This study reinforces the importance of storage aw and temperature conditions in the high risk of free and modified toxin contamination of small cereal grains. en_UK
dc.language.iso en_UK en_UK
dc.publisher MDPI en_UK
dc.rights Attribution 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ *
dc.subject T-2 toxin en_UK
dc.subject HT-2 toxin en_UK
dc.subject diacetoxyscirpenol en_UK
dc.subject deoxynivalenol en_UK
dc.subject masked mycotoxins en_UK
dc.subject LC-MS/MS en_UK
dc.subject oat grains en_UK
dc.title Impact of environmental conditions on the concentrations of trichothecenes, their glucosides, and emerging fusarium toxins in naturally contaminated, irradiated, and fusarium iangsethiae inoculated oats en_UK
dc.type Article en_UK
dcterms.dateAccepted 2024-03-12


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