Alternative chemical control of anthracnose and crown rot of banana caused by Colletotrichum musae

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dc.contributor.advisor Aked, Julia Khan, Sabir Hussain 2023-03-16T16:30:10Z 2023-03-16T16:30:10Z 2000-11
dc.description.abstract Chemical alternatives to the fungicides currently used to control Colletotrichum musae infections on banana fruit have been investigated. Four isolates of C. musae cultured from anthracnose lesions on imported banana fruit were screened against the fungicides thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA). Two of the isolates showed some tolerance to TBZ even at 1.24 mM (250 ppm), whereas all four isolates were very sensitive to imazalil at concentrations of > 0.017 mM (5 ppm). One susceptible (CM100) and one tolerant (CM103) isolate (to TBZ) was selected. Eleven chemicals were evaluated over a range of concentrations for their effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and mycelial growth of these isolates in vitro (on MEA). The chemicals were the antioxidants ascorbic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl paraben (PP), propyl gallate (PG), dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), thiourea and tannic acid and the natural plant product azadiractin. BHA, azadiractin, benzoic acid, PP and PG gave the highest levels of fungal inhibition in vitro. BHA at 5 mM completely inhibited the germination and mycelial growth of CM100 and CM 103 at 25°C. BHA (1 mM) in combinations with benzoic acid (1 mM), PP (1 mM) or imazalil (1.68 pM) completely inhibited germination and mycelial growth of CM103 at 14 and 25°C. The effectiveness of imazalil was not affected by the pH of the medium whereas the effectiveness of BHA was greatest at pH 3.5 and 6.5 and benzoic acid was more effective at lower pH values. C. musae was shown to produce nine extracellular enzymes in liquid medium which have not been reported before including lipases, phosphatases and hydrolases. BHA, imazalil and TBZ caused differential inhibition of the production or activity of these enzymes. The toxicity of selected chemicals was tested against anthracnose or crown rot infections of fingers or hands of banana fruits. Inoculations of C. musae were made with either mycelium in wounds in the banana peel or with conidia on the intact surface of the fruit or on the cut stalk or crown tissues. Of the alternative chemicals tested on their own, BHA and azadiractin gave the greatest inhibition of anthracnose and crown rot infections with dip treatments at 1 mM giving control levels ranging from 10-39% compared with 17.6-38.3% for imazalil (0.84 mM = 250 ppm). BHA (5 mM) in combinations with imazalil (0.84 mM), PP (10 mM) or benzoic acid (10 mM) suppressed anthracnose lesions (CM103) by 64.7, 54.9 and 35.3 %, and crown rot development by 70.5, 62.3 and 42.6 % at 25°C respectively. At 14°C these same combinations gave complete control of anthracnose lesions and crown rot development. TBZ was less effective at controlling crown rot (CM100 or CM 103) than imazalil alone or when in combinations with BHA. Combinations of BHA with imazalil but not with TBZ showed synergism both in vitro and in vivo. The cost/litre of the best trial treatment (BHA at 5 mM with imazalil at 0.84 mM) was less than that of imazalil at 1.68 mM (500 ppm). This suggests that food grade phenolic antioxidants such as BHA may be useful adjuncts to currently used fungicides such as imazalil for commercial control of banana postharvest diseases. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.rights © Cranfield University, 2015. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.
dc.title Alternative chemical control of anthracnose and crown rot of banana caused by Colletotrichum musae en_UK
dc.type Thesis en_UK
dc.description.coursename PhD en_UK

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