What is the impact of personal care products selection on greywater characteristics and reuse?

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dc.contributor.author Kadewa, Wilfred W.
dc.contributor.author Knops, Geraldine
dc.contributor.author Pidou, Marc
dc.contributor.author Jeffrey, Paul
dc.contributor.author Jefferson, Bruce
dc.contributor.author Le Corre, Kristell S.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-09-11T08:42:58Z
dc.date.available 2020-09-11T08:42:58Z
dc.date.issued 2020-08-01
dc.identifier.citation Kadewa WW, Knops G, Pidou M, et al., (2020) What is the impact of personal care products selection on greywater characteristics and reuse? Science of the Total Environment, Volume 749, December 2020 Article number 141413 en_UK
dc.identifier.issn 0048-9697
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141413
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/15783
dc.description.abstract Accounting for up to three quarters of the wastewater volume resulting from domestic activities but containing only a third of its organic content, greywater is seen as an alternative water source for non-potable reuse. This unique study explores the question whether consumers' product selection could affect the treatability and reuse of bathroom greywater. Fifty five personal care and household products (PCHP) were analysed for their effects on a range of water quality parameters including their aquatic and soil toxicity using Microtox® and MicroResp™. The organic content of these PCHPs varied considerably, not only from one category to another (0.2 gTOC.L−1 for hair conditioners to 2.7 gTOC.L−1 for toothpastes), but also within each category (0.1 gTOC.L−1 to 3.6 gTOC.L−1 amongst the shampoos). As expected, the PCHPs' macronutrient content was low, suggesting some limitation towards biological treatment of bathroom greywater. Regarding the impact of product selection on toxicity towards aquatic and soil microorganisms, the results revealed a higher sensitivity of Vibrio fischeri to the individual PCHPs than the MicroResp™ soil microorganisms. In the latter case, 75% of the products caused a stimulation response from the microorganisms although some decreases in basal respiration were observed for specific PCHPs within product categories. However, based solely on MicroResp™, the short-term discharge of treated bathroom greywater, regardless of consumer product selection, is unlikely to have a negative impact on soil microbial activity. Overall, the work has demonstrated the importance of consumer choice on the pollution load and treatability of greywater. However, no clear link between greywater characteristics and factors that normally determine consumer product selection (branding, type) were identified. This means it is not currently possible for consumers to actively manage the issue through choice such that process designers and technology developers must ensure technologies are sufficiently robust to manage the potential variations that could occur. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.publisher Elsevier en_UK
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ *
dc.subject Greywater en_UK
dc.subject Recycling en_UK
dc.subject Personal care products en_UK
dc.subject Consumers choice en_UK
dc.subject Physico-chemical characterisation en_UK
dc.subject Microbiological soil and aquatic toxicity en_UK
dc.title What is the impact of personal care products selection on greywater characteristics and reuse? en_UK
dc.type Article en_UK

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