Properties of cellulose nanofibre networks prepared from never-dried and dried paper mill sludge

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dc.contributor.author Adu, Cynthia
dc.contributor.author Berglund, Linn
dc.contributor.author Oksman, Kristiina
dc.contributor.author Eichhorn, Stephen J.
dc.contributor.author Jolly, Mark R.
dc.contributor.author Zhu, Chenchen
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-04T11:45:31Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-04T11:45:31Z
dc.date.issued 2018-06-27
dc.identifier.citation Adu C, Berglund L, Oksman K, Eichhorn SJ, Jolly M, Zhu C, Properties of cellulose nanofibre networks prepared from never-dried and dried paper mill sludge, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 197, Part 1, 1 October 2018, pp. 765-771 en_UK
dc.identifier.issn 0959-6526
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.263
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/13315
dc.description.abstract Paper mills yield large volumes of sludge materials which pose an environmental and economic challenge for disposal, despite the fact that they could be a valuable source for cellulose nanofibres (CNF) production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the production process and properties of CNF prepared by mechanical fibrillation of never-dried and dried paper mill sludge (PMS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that average diameters for both never-dried and dried paper sludge nanofibres (PSNF) were less than 50 nm. The never-dried and dried sludge nanofibres showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) in strength ∼92 MPa, and ∼85 MPa and modulus ∼11 GPa and ∼10 GPa. The study concludes that paper mill sludge can be used in a dried state for CNF production to reduce transportation and storage challenges posed on industrial scale. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.publisher Elsevier en_UK
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ *
dc.title Properties of cellulose nanofibre networks prepared from never-dried and dried paper mill sludge en_UK
dc.type Article en_UK
dc.identifier.cris 20775381


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