Investigation into the environmental fate of the combined Insensitive High Explosive constituents 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ) and nitrotriazolone (NTO) in soil

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author Temple, Tracey
dc.contributor.author Ladyman, Melissa
dc.contributor.author Mai, Nathalie
dc.contributor.author Galante, Erick
dc.contributor.author Ricamora, M
dc.contributor.author Shirazi, R
dc.contributor.author Coulon, Frederic
dc.date.accessioned 2018-01-22T18:24:45Z
dc.date.available 2018-01-22T18:24:45Z
dc.date.issued 2018-01-12
dc.identifier.citation Temple T, Ladyman M, Mai N, et al., Investigation into the environmental fate of the combined Insensitive High Explosive constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ) and nitrotriazolone (NTO) in soil, Science of the Total Environment, Volume 625, 1 June 2018, pp. 1264-1271 en_UK
dc.identifier.issn 0048-9697
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.264
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/12917
dc.description.abstract Contamination of military ranges by the use of explosives can lead to irreversible environmental damage, specifically to soil and groundwater. The fate and effects of traditional explosive residues are well understood, while less is known about the impact of Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs) that are currently being brought into military service. Current research has focussed on the investigation of individual constituents of IHE formulations, which may not be representative of real-world scenarios when explosive residues will be deposited together. Therefore, this study investigated the fate and transport of the combined IHE constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in two UK soil types. Static experiments ran for 9 weeks to determine the fate of the combined explosive constituents in soil by monitoring the rate of degradation. Transport was examined by running soil column experiments for 5 weeks, with a watering regime equivalent to the average yearly UK rainfall. Both static and soil column experiments confirmed that DNAN and NTO started to degrade within twenty-four hours in soil with high organic content, and were both completely degraded within sixty days. NQ was more stable, with 80% of the original material recovered after sixty days. The major degradation product of DNAN in the test soils was 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN), with trace amounts of 4-amino-2-nitroanisole. NTO was rapidly degraded in soil with high organic content, although no degradation products were identified. Results supported work from literature on the individual constituents DNAN, NQ and NTO suggesting that the three explosives in combination did not interact with each other when in soil. This study should provide a useful insight into the behaviour of three combined Insensitive High Explosive constituents for the predication of soil and water contamination during military training. en_UK
dc.language.iso en en_UK
dc.publisher Elsevier en_UK
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ *
dc.subject Fate and transport en_UK
dc.subject Explosive degradation en_UK
dc.subject 2-ANAN en_UK
dc.subject 4-ANAN en_UK
dc.subject DAAN en_UK
dc.title Investigation into the environmental fate of the combined Insensitive High Explosive constituents 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 1-nitroguanidine (NQ) and nitrotriazolone (NTO) in soil en_UK
dc.type Article en_UK


Files in this item

The following license files are associated with this item:

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Search CERES


Browse

My Account

Statistics